Global Warming Effects

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Lighting Efficiency Tips

Reduce Light Levels

You can often reduce light levels without reducing light quality by the following procedure:

  • Redesign visual tasks. For example, begin using a better printer with darker lettering, or install light filtering shades to reduce glare.
  • Reduce light levels where there are no visual tasks. Provide minimum light necessary for safety, security, and aesthetics.
  • Reduce light levels for visual tasks where those levels are currently excessive.

If you want to cut lighting energy consumption, while enhancing light quality, consider the following:

  • Paint and decorate using light colors.
  • Establish ambient illumination at minimum acceptable levels.
  • Provide task lighting at optimal level, depending on the difficulty of visual tasks-for example, sewing requires more light than cooking.
  • Replace lamps, ballasts, and fixtures with more efficient models.
  • Buy and use CFLs.
  • Improve light quality by reducing glare and brightness contrast.
  • Use daylight.

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Posted by Fay B. Castro - January 11, 2012 at 3:10 pm

Categories: Ecology, Global Warming Effects, Save Energy   Tags:

Lighting Efficiency

Energy Efficiency Lighting

Lighting accounts for 20% to 25% of all American energy consumption. An average household dedicates 5% to 10% of its energy budget for lighting, or commercial establishments consume 20% to 30% of their total energy use for lighting.

Electricity is usually converted into light (in residential buildings) in incandescent or fluorescent lamps.

 

Illumination

A lumen measures light output from a lamp. All lamps are rated in lumens. For example, 100-Watt  incandescent lamp produces about 1750 lumens. Dividing a lamp’s number of lumens by its watts gives efficacy-a measurement of lighting efficiency.

The distribution of light on a horizontal surface is called its illumination. Illumination is measured in footcandles. A footcandle of illumination is a lumen of light distributed over one square foot of area.

The amount of light required, measured in footcandles, varies according to the difficulty of a visual task. Ideal illumination is the minimum footcandles necessary to comfortably perform a task at the maximum practical rate of speed without eyestrain.

In the past, illumination of 100 footcandles was thought to be minimum for visual tasks in the workplace. Now, the Illuminating Engineering Society says that 30 to 50 footcandles is adequate for most home and office work. Difficult and lengthy visual task, like sewing for extended periods of time, requires 200 to 500 Footcandles. When no seeing task are performed, the lighting system needs to provide only security, safety, of visual pleasure – from 5 to 20 footcandles.

Lighting uses

Three categories of lighting by faction are ambient lighting, task lighting and accent lighting.

Ambient lighting provide security and safety, as well as lighting the tasks that occur throughout the lighted space.

Task lighting provides light at the work area. Illumination levels should be high enough for accurate task execution in task areas – not throughout the entire lighted space.

Accent lighting illuminates walls so that their brightness contrasts less with brighter areas, like ceilings and windows. Accent lighting is also used to make the space more visually comfortable.

Lighting Color

Lamps are assigned a color temperature depending on their “Coolness” or “warmness.” people perceive color of the blue-green end of the color spectrum is cool and those of the spectrum’s red end as warm. Morning light from the North is a more bluish then Southwest evening light.

Cool light sources are preferred for visual task, since they produce better contrast at the printed page, workbench, or other tasks. Warm light sources are preferred for living space, because they are more flattering to people’s skin and clothing.

Incandescent Lamps

Incandescent lamps are the oldest, most common, and most inexpensive lamps. Incandescent lights is produced by a white-hot coil of tungsten wire that glows when heated by electrical current. The type of glass enclosures surrounding this tungsten filament determines its light beam’s characteristics. Only 10% of the electricity is converted into light, the other 90% becoming heat.

Incandescent lamps have the shortest service life of the common lighting types. All incandescents are relatively inefficient compared to other lighting types. However, significant savings are possible – if you select the right incandescent lamp for his purpose.

Referred to by lighting experts as the A-type light bulb, these lamps are the most common and the most inefficient light source available. Larger wattage bulbs are more efficient than smaller wattage bulbs. Long-life bulbs, with thicker filaments and lower efficacy, are a common variant.

Fluorescent Lamps

Fluorescent lamps produce light by passing electric current through a metallic gas. The flow of electricity through the gas excites special chemicals called phosphors, causing them to glow or “fluoresce.” Fluorescent lighting is used mainly for indoor lighting. Fluorescent lighting needs controlling devices, called ballasts, the starting the circuit protection. Ballasts also consume energy.

Fluorescent lights for approximately three to four times as efficient as incandescents, and their lamp life is about ten times greater. Fluorescent lamps convert 80% of the electricity they use into light.

Compact fluorescent (CFLs) the most significant recent lighting advance for homes. They combined their efficacy of fluorescent lighting with the convenience and universality of incandescent fixtures. Recent advances in CFL designs also provide more natural color rendition and less flicker than older designs.

Recessed Fixture Issues 

Recessed light fixtures, especially cylindrical ones called “cans,”are often direct leak through the air barrier. These fixtures, when they contain incandescent bulbs, must be ventilated by holes in their shell to purge heat to from the fixture.

Installed in soffits, cathedral ceiling, and suspended ceiling, recessed light fixtures connect the conditioned space to attics or roof cavities. Not only do they exchange air between conditioned spaces and building cavities, recessed light fixtures also allow warm, moist indoor air to reach cold roof decking, causing condensation.

One remedy is to replace the fixture with a similar fluorescent fixture, which produces only a quarter of the heat and doesn’t need venting.

LIGHTING EFFICIENCY TIPS

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Posted by Fay B. Castro - January 11, 2012 at 12:18 pm

Categories: Ecology, Global Warming Effects, Save Energy   Tags:

Methane Gas Exposure

Giant plumes of Methane bubbling to surface of Arctic Ocean

Dramatic and unprecedented plumes of methane – a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide – have been seen in the Arctic Ocean.

Antarctic oceanic and tropospheric studies focus on the structure and processes of the ocean-atmosphere environment and their relationships with the global ocean, the atmosphere, and the marine biosphere. As part of the global heat engine, the Antarctic has a major role in the world’s transfer of energy. Its ocean/atmosphere system is known to be both an indicator and a component of climate change.

Russian scientists discovered the methane gas, some 1,000 meters in diameter, bubbling to the surface of the Arctic Ocean. Scientists are concerned that as the Arctic Shelf recedes, the unprecedented levels of gas released could greatly accelerate global climate change.

The sheer scale and volume of the methane release has astonished the Russian research team who has been surveying the seabed of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf off northern Russia for nearly 20 years.

Dr Semiletov’s team published a study in 2010 estimating that the methane emissions from this region were about eight million tons a year, but the latest expedition suggests this is a significant underestimate of the phenomenon.

Igor Semiletov of the Russian Academy of Sciences tells the UK’s Independent that the plumes of methane, a gas 20 times as harmful as carbon dioxide, have shocked scientists who have been studying the region for decades. “Earlier we found torch-like structures like this but they were only tens of meters in diameter,” he said. “This is the first time that we’ve found continuous, powerful and impressive seeping structures, more than 1,000 meters in diameter. It’s astounding.”

Scientists estimate that there are hundreds of millions of tones of methane gas locked away beneath the Arctic permafrost, which extends from the mainland into the seabed of the relatively shallow sea of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. One of the greatest fears is that with the disappearance of the Arctic sea-ice in summer, and rapidly rising temperatures across the entire region, which are already melting the Siberian permafrost, the trapped methane could be suddenly released into the atmosphere leading to rapid and severe climate change.

“In a very small area, less than 10,000 square miles, we have counted more than 100 fountains, or torch-like structures, bubbling through the water column and injected directly into the atmosphere from the seabed,” Dr Semiletov said. “We carried out checks at about 115 stationary points and discovered methane fields of a fantastic scale – I think on a scale not seen before. Some plumes were a kilometer or more wide and the emissions went directly into the atmosphere – the concentration was a hundred times higher than normal.”

Dr Semiletov released his findings for the first time last week at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco. December 2011.

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Posted by Fay B. Castro - December 16, 2011 at 12:35 pm

Categories: Ecology, Global Warming Effects, Green Education   Tags: